Saturday, June 26, 2004
Glenn, 1995, "sex, lies, and manuscript"
Glenn, Cheryl. "sex, lies, and manuscript: Refiguring Aspasia in the History of Rhetoric." On Writing Research: The Braddock Essays, 1975-1998. Ed. Lisa Ede. New York: Bedford St. Martin's, 1999. 336-351.
Aspasia, a woman rhetorician from Miletus--what's modern day Turkey--stood in an improbable role during the heyday of the rhet-charged Greek polis. A contemporary of the patriarchy of better-historicized--Pericles, Xenophon, Aeschines, Aristotle and Sophocles--Aspasia affected the public sphere and contributed, with notable influence, to the votary of male officials. Cheryl Glenn's 1995 Braddock-winning essay, invokes mapping metaphors to suggest gendered displacements while appropriating Aspasia a legitimate place in the rhetorical tradition. The essay is necessarily encyclopedic; it also piles through a fair amount of best-guesses, probabilities and likelihoods in a successful attempt to carve out historiographic room for Aspasia. Glenn's work situates Aspasia in the context of heavily patriarchal rhetorical tradition. In doing so, she exposes openings and possibilities in the sketchy historical record, and ends with a call for ongoing re-readings of the rhetorical tradition that ask questions about representation, absence and silence, and that accept Aspasia as a beacon for modern feminist scholarship in rhetoric.
My foothold in classical rhetoric is shaky at its most stable. Reading "sex, lies, and manuscript" helped me see the tradition as a contested realm, and the trick for the scholar of classical rhetoric--it seems--is to explore the nebulous areas, to inquire about what's missing and why, and to see the tradition anew by refreshing it with now-relevant questions. It's clear I need to spend more time with B&H's The Rhetorical Tradition; I've plans to crack it later this summer.
The "sex, lies, and manuscript" reference gets explained later in Glenn's essay (or is it in the afternote?). I never saw the movie sex, lies, and videotape, so the allusion was a stretch. I think it might have come across more resolutely for readers ten years ago, but the reference didn't seem adequately sustained, sufficiently built-in for me--especially for the juxtaposition of manuscript and videotape. Probably would make better sense if I checked out the movie, eh?
I wondered how differently each of the characterizations--"[one who] ventured out into the common land, [one who] distinguished herself by her rhetorical accomplishments, her sexual attachment to Pericles, and her public participation in political affairs"--rolled together to give Aspasia a single sense of persona. For that matter, did Glenn find these overlapping identities competing? Manipulable? Exclusive? It's not easy to say with precision, but especially in the places where Glenn needles at Pericles' legitimacy (suggesting, basically, that "Aspasia surely must have influenced Pericles in the composition of those speeches that both established him as a persuasive speaker and informed him as the most respected citizen-orator of the age" (342)), I had the sense that the unverifiability of it all encroached on Glenn's argument. And, of course, I recognize that this also points to an imperfect historical record and the difficulties of writing across +/- 2,500 years.
I picked up a few terms that I'd heard before (some of them, anyway), but that I hadn't explored lately: arete and homonoia. As Glenn casts them, arete tends toward an elite sense of governance by virtue--a kind of oligarchic/aristocratic democracy, whereas homonoia called for virtue by all, no matter gender or social class, for the good of the entire democratized polity. According to Glenn, "Thus was manifested the complex tension between the elitist arete and a more democratic homonoia. Another useful term was panhellenism, which points to "a doctrine sorely needed to to unify the Greek city-states, just as it satiated the male appetite for public display." The term is used in a way that might allow something like diversity or heterogeneity (especially in relationships, I guess) stand in its place. And the last noteworthy term is consubstantiality. The funeral orations aspired to this attribute of consubstantiality, which basically means that the experience--the rhetorical effect--would be replicated throughout time, so "the shared experience of this rhetorical ritual linked [!] everyone present even as it connected them 'with other audiences in the past' (Mackin 251)" (344). Consubstantiality. Consubstantiality.
"Such challenges not only restore women to rhetorical history and rhetorical history to women, but the restoration itself revitalizes theory by shaking the conceptual foundations of rhetorical study" (336).
"When other women were systematically relegated to the domestic sphere, Aspasia seems to have been the only woman in classical Greece to have distinguished herself in the public domain" (338).
"By every historical account, Aspasia ventured out into the common land, distinguished herself by her rhetorical accomplishments, her sexual attachment to Pericles, and her public participation in political affairs" (339).
"The Menexenus contains Plato's version of Socrates' version of Aspasia's version of Pericles' Funeral Oration, further recognition of Aspasia's reputation as rhetorician, philosopher, and as influential colleague in the Sophistic movement, a movement devoted to the analysis and creation of rhetoric--and of truth" (344).
"Jarratt explains the sophistic rhetorical technique and its social-constructionist underpinning with her definition of nomos as a 'self-conscious arrangement of discourse to create politically and socially significant knowledge...thus it is always a social construct with ethical dimensions' (60)" (345).
"Our first obligation, then, as rhetorical scholars is to look backwards at all the unquestioned scholarship that has come before; then, we must begin to re-map our notion of rhetorical history. By simply choosing which men and women to show and how to represent them, we subtly shape the perceptions of our profession, enabling the profession to recognize and remember--or to forget--the obvious and not-so-obvious women on our intellectual landscape" (349).Posted by Derek Mueller at June 26, 2004 3:37 PM to Reading Notes