Close Modeling

Flower and Hayes refer to their studies of talk-aloud protocols as "close
modeling" (53) ("Designing Protocol Studies…", Hayes, Flower, Swarts, 1984).
Close modeling suggests models that are slotted at a certain scale. For
protocol studies, the scale is the solitary writer who is given a specific (if
dull) writing task, who then executes the writing task, and who reports on the
writing process according to a pre-determined processual scheme.

The famous visual model (from the CCC article in 1981) plays only a
minor role in this discussion of close modeling. The visual model is
presented once more in "Designing," reiterated with so little explicit treatment
that its structuring function is more or less obvious and settled.
I mean that it has not changed in the three intervening years. The visual
model is static, inert, a monument.

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Flower, et al., 1987, “Strategies of Revision”

 Flower, Linda, et al. “Detection, Diagnosis, and the Strategies of Revision.” On Writing Research: The Braddock Essays, 1975-1998. Ed. Lisa Ede. New York: Bedford St. Martin’s, 1999. 191-228.

Big Idea
Over two years, five contributing researchers sought to refine the key intellectual actions in revision. The study dealt with both student-written texts and expert-written texts; it’s an example of collaborative analysis and the challenges of collaborative writing. The project seeks refinement in the terms we use to describe the revision process, setting out with special
investment in “detection” and “diagnosis.” It also works from a confluence of theories toward revision. Specifically, the endnote acknowledges
theory’s promise of tentative knowing (Dewey’s "experimental
ways"). Their work affirms the complex, various interplays of revision toward the fulfillment of a textual
need. And, although the textual need is often defined by the teacher, the essay-project promises the value in enabling “novice” student-writers to detect, diagnose and strategically affect textual
needs emerging from their own knowledge and intention. 

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